Background: Cognitive-motor dual-task (CMDT) is defined as the parallel processing of motor (eg, gait) and cognitive (eg, executive functions) activities and is an essential ability in daily life. Older adults living with frailty, chronic conditions (eg, neurodegenerative diseases), or multimorbidity pay high costs during CMDT. This can have serious consequences on the health and safety of older adults with chronic age-related conditions. However, CMDT rehabilitation can provide useful and effective therapies for these patients, particularly if delivered through technological devices. Objective: This review aims to describe the current technological applications, CMDT rehabilitative procedures, target populations, condition assessment, and efficacy and effectiveness of technology-assisted CMDT rehabilitation in chronic age-related conditions. Methods: We performed this systematic review, following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, on 3 databases (Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed). Original articles that were published in English; involved older adults (>65 years) with ≥1 chronic condition and/or frailty; and tested, with a clinical trial, a technology-assisted CMDT rehabilitation against a control condition were included. Risk of bias (Cochrane tool) and the RITES (Rating of Included Trials on the Efficacy-Effectiveness Spectrum) tool were used to evaluate the included studies. Results: A total of 1097 papers were screened, and 8 (0.73%) studies met the predefined inclusion criteria for this review. The target conditions for technology-assisted CMDT rehabilitation included Parkinson disease and dementia. However, little information regarding multimorbidity, chronicity, or frailty status is available. The primary outcomes included falls, balance, gait parameters, dual-task performance, and executive functions and attention. CMDT technology mainly consists of a motion-tracking system combined with virtual reality. CMDT rehabilitation involves different types of tasks (eg, obstacle negotiation and CMDT exercises). Compared with control conditions, CMDT training was found to be pleasant, safe, and effective particularly for dual-task performances, falls, gait, and cognition, and the effects were maintained at midterm follow-up. Conclusions: Despite further research being mandatory, technology-assisted CMDT rehabilitation is a promising method to enhance motor-cognitive functions in older adults with chronic conditions.

Technology-Assisted Cognitive Motor Dual-Task Rehabilitation in Chronic Age-Related Conditions: Systematic Review

Tuena, Cosimo
;
Bruni, Francesca;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: Cognitive-motor dual-task (CMDT) is defined as the parallel processing of motor (eg, gait) and cognitive (eg, executive functions) activities and is an essential ability in daily life. Older adults living with frailty, chronic conditions (eg, neurodegenerative diseases), or multimorbidity pay high costs during CMDT. This can have serious consequences on the health and safety of older adults with chronic age-related conditions. However, CMDT rehabilitation can provide useful and effective therapies for these patients, particularly if delivered through technological devices. Objective: This review aims to describe the current technological applications, CMDT rehabilitative procedures, target populations, condition assessment, and efficacy and effectiveness of technology-assisted CMDT rehabilitation in chronic age-related conditions. Methods: We performed this systematic review, following PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines, on 3 databases (Web of Science, Embase, and PubMed). Original articles that were published in English; involved older adults (>65 years) with ≥1 chronic condition and/or frailty; and tested, with a clinical trial, a technology-assisted CMDT rehabilitation against a control condition were included. Risk of bias (Cochrane tool) and the RITES (Rating of Included Trials on the Efficacy-Effectiveness Spectrum) tool were used to evaluate the included studies. Results: A total of 1097 papers were screened, and 8 (0.73%) studies met the predefined inclusion criteria for this review. The target conditions for technology-assisted CMDT rehabilitation included Parkinson disease and dementia. However, little information regarding multimorbidity, chronicity, or frailty status is available. The primary outcomes included falls, balance, gait parameters, dual-task performance, and executive functions and attention. CMDT technology mainly consists of a motion-tracking system combined with virtual reality. CMDT rehabilitation involves different types of tasks (eg, obstacle negotiation and CMDT exercises). Compared with control conditions, CMDT training was found to be pleasant, safe, and effective particularly for dual-task performances, falls, gait, and cognition, and the effects were maintained at midterm follow-up. Conclusions: Despite further research being mandatory, technology-assisted CMDT rehabilitation is a promising method to enhance motor-cognitive functions in older adults with chronic conditions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11389/55238
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